Grit, Determination and Diligence

December 7, 2018 Richard Justenhoven

Grit, determination and diligence in assessment

Is having Grit different to being Conscientious?

Grit. Perseverance. Determination. Call it what you will, we tend to think of these characteristics as essential foundation for success. Indeed, some say that a high rating on 'grit' is what marks out high achievers from the rest.

But is grit a personality trait in its own right?  If so, do we need to measure separately?

The two constructs of ‘grit’ and ‘conscientiousness’ are, without doubt closely connected – and in fact research has shown this to be the case (Credé, Tynan, & Harms, 2016). But in their meta-analysis, Credé et al also showed that the two facets of grit – perseverance and consistency – differ in their usefulness for predicting achievement outcomes. They found that perseverance is more predictive of achievement. It seems that the grit-conscientiousness relationship needs further research to understand it better and a recent study by Schmidt, Nagy, Fleckenstein, Möller and Retelsdorf focused on this.

The research

Schmidt and his team of researchers worked with two samples (school pupils and adults) and asked them to complete an assessment of Grit – the Grit scale - and the Conscientiousness items of the Big Five personality assessment NEO-PIR. The Grit scale includes two facets; one of Perseverance of Effort the other of Consistency of Effort. The Conscientious trait of the NEO PI-R includes sub-traits or facets of Competence, Order, Dutifulness, Achievement Striving, Self-discipline and Deliberation.

After the participants had completed all the items, the team analysed the variance in answers on one of the scales overlapped with the variance in their answers on the other. In doing so, they wanted to find out whether or not the two scales were essentially measuring the same constructs.

Their findings suggest that:

  • The Perseverance scale of grit shared 95 per cent of its variance with the trait of Conscientiousness and with its more ‘pro-active’ sub-traits relating to being industrious and driven.
  • The global, general trait of grit trait shared a large amount of variance with Conscientiousness and with the same sub-traits as above.
  • The Consistency facet of grit (which is concerned with focus) shared only 69 per cent of its variance with Conscientiousness - which means it was also measuring something else – but was correlated with the Self-discipline facet.  

What does this mean in practice?

It seems that when we talk of grit, we use it synonymously with, and as an alternative, to the ‘driven’ aspects of the trait of conscientiousness. The researchers make the point that, because of this, grit is not a separate trait.

But what of the element of focus and consistency that form part of grit? It seems that this is not part of Conscientiousness but whether this is something different requires further research.


Credé, M., Tynan, M. C., & Harms, P. D. (2016). Much ado about grit: A meta‐analytic synthesis of the grit literature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advance online publication.

Schmidt, F. T.C., Nagy, G., Fleckenstein, J., Möller, J. and Retelsdorf, J. (2018). European Journal of  Personality, Same Same, but Different? Relations Between Facets of Conscientiousness and Grit

About the Author

Richard Justenhoven

Richard Justenhoven is the product development director within Aon's Assessment Solutions. A leading organizational psychologist, Richard is an acknowledged expert in the design, implementation and evaluation of online assessments and a sought after speaker about such topics.

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